Rectangular wooden outer-coffin of Sen
12th Dynasty, Middle Kingdom
(Source: The British Museum)
This is a rumor. Its not true.
Fisher Pen company developed the Space Pen independently in 1967 and it flew on Apollo. Prior to 1967 they used grease and mechanical pencils.
From Snopes:Paul Fisher realized the astronauts needed a safer and more dependable writing instrument, so in July 1965 he developed the pressurized ball pen, with its ink enclosed in a sealed, pressurized ink cartridge. Fisher sent the first samples to Dr. Robert Gilruth, Director of the Houston Space Center. The pens were all metal except for the ink, which had a flash point above 200°C. The sample Space Pens were thoroughly tested by NASA. They passed all the tests and have been used ever since on all manned space flights, American and Russian. All research and development costs were paid by Paul Fisher. No development costs have ever been charged to the government.Fisher spent over one million dollars in trying to perfect the ball point pen before he made his first successful pressurized pens in 1965. Samples were immediately sent to Dr. Robert Gilruth, Manager of the Houston Space Center, where they were thoroughly tested and approved for use in Space in September 1965. In December 1967 he sold 400 Fisher Space Pens to NASA for $2.95 each.
Lead pencils were used on all Mercury and Gemini space flights and all Russian space flights prior to 1968. Fisher Space Pens are more dependable than lead pencils and cannot create the hazard of a broken piece of lead floating through the gravity-less atmosphere.And Scientific American:
Originally, NASA astronauts, like the Soviet cosmonauts, used pencils, according to NASA historians. In fact, NASA ordered 34 mechanical pencils from Houston’s Tycam Engineering Manufacturing, Inc., in 1965. They paid $4,382.50 or $128.89 per pencil. When these prices became public, there was an outcry and NASA scrambled to find something cheaper for the astronauts to use.
Pencils may not have been the best choice anyway. The tips flaked and broke off, drifting in microgravity where they could potentially harm an astronaut or equipment. And pencils are flammable—a quality NASA wanted to avoid in onboard objects after the Apollo 1 fire.
According to an Associated Press report from February 1968, NASA ordered 400 of Fisher’s antigravity ballpoint pens for the Apollo program. A year later, the Soviet Union ordered 100 pens and 1,000 ink cartridges to use on their Soyuz space missions, said the United Press International. The AP later noted that both NASA and the Soviet space agency received the same 40 percent discount for buying their pens in bulk. They both paid $2.39 per pen instead of $3.98.
The space pen’s mark on the Apollo program was not limited to facilitating writing in microgravity. According to the Fisher Space Pen Company, the Apollo 11 astronauts also used the pen to fix a broken arming switch, enabling their return to Earth.
Since the late 1960s American astronauts and Russian cosmonauts have used Fisher’s pens. In fact, Fisher has created a whole line of space pens. A newer pen, called the Shuttle Pen, was used on NASA’s space shuttles and on the Russian space station, Mir. Of course, you don’t have to go to space to get your hands on a space pen—earthbound folks can own one for the low, low price of $50.00.
Henry Kissinger shares a meal with Chinese premier Zhou Enlai; Beijing, 1972 [620 x 413] - Imgur
Sunday, Sunday Sunday
Hot gas sloshing in a galactic cauldron
Galaxies are social beasts that are mostly found in groups or clusters – large assemblies of galaxies that are permeated by even larger amounts of diffuse gas. With temperatures of 10 million degrees or more, the gas in galaxy groups and clusters is hot enough to shine brightly in X-rays and be detected by ESA’s XMM-Newton X-ray observatory.
As galaxies speed through these gigantic cauldrons, they occasionally jumble the gas and forge it into lop-sided shapes. An example is revealed in this composite image of the galaxy group NGC 5044, the brightest group in X-rays in the entire sky.
The group is named after the massive and bright elliptical galaxy at its centre, surrounded by tens of smaller spiral and dwarf galaxies. The galaxies are shown in a combination of optical images from the Digitized Sky Survey with infrared and ultraviolet images from NASA’s WISE and Galex satellites, respectively. Foreground stars are also sprinkled across the image.
The large blue blob shows the distribution of hot gas filling the space between NGC 5044’s galaxies as imaged by XMM-Newton. From the X-ray observations, astronomers can also see the glow of iron atoms that were forged in stellar explosions within the galaxies of the group but streamed beyond. The distribution of iron atoms is shown in purple.
Embedded within the hot gas are clouds of even more energetic plasma that emit radio waves – a reminder of the past activity of a supermassive black hole lurking at the centre of the group. These are the green filament extending from the central galaxy to the lower right and the larger green region to its lower left, which were imaged with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope, near Pune in India.
Astronomers believe that gas in NGC 5044 is sloshing as a consequence of a galaxy that passed through it several millions of years ago. The culprit is the spiral galaxy NGC 5054, which is not visible here, instead hiding beyond its lower left corner.
Image credit: E. O’Sullivan & ESA
please grant me the option to feel pretty & worthy today
Fat Fall Fairy